Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 5 × 7 as the total number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each (e.g., describe context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as 5 × 7).
Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 56 ÷ 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each (e.g., describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 ÷ 8).
Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays and measurement quantities (e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem).
Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers (e.g., determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 × ? = 48, 5 = ? ÷ 3, 6 × 6 =?).