TREE
Alignment
Lesson
Miscellaneous
Web
Resource

English Language Arts - Kindergarten

All West Virginia teachers are responsible for classroom instruction that integrates content standards, learning skills and technology tools. Students in kindergarten will advance through a developmentally-appropriate progression of standards. In kindergarten, students should be immersed in a literacy-rich environment and have numerous opportunities to engage with complex texts appropriate for kindergarten in order to meet college- and career-readiness expectations. By the end of the programmatic level (grade 1) and over the course of the entire instructional day, the distribution of text types should include 50% literary and 50% informational, and writing types should be 30% argumentative, 35% informative, and 35% narrative.

Early Learning Foundations

Fluency

ELA.K.I

Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.

Phonics and Word Recognition

ELA.K.II

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

  • Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary or many of the most frequent sounds for each consonant.
  • Associate common spellings (graphemes) with the five major short vowel sounds.
  • Read common high-frequency words by sight (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, or does).
  • Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.

Handwriting

ELA.K.III

Print upper- and lowercase letters.

Phonological Awareness

ELA.K.IV

Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).

  • Recognize and produce rhyming words.
  • Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words.
  • Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.
  • Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme words (i.e., consonant-vowel-consonant, hereinafter CVC). This does not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/ or /x/.
  • Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words.

Print Concepts

ELA.K.V

Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.

  • Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.
  • Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.
  • Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
  • Recognize and name upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet.

Reading

Key Ideas and Details

ELA.K.1

With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a literary text.

ELA.K.2

With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details in literary texts.

ELA.K.3

With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a literary text.

ELA.K.4

With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in an informational text.

ELA.K.5

With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of an informational text.

ELA.K.6

With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in an informational text.

Craft and Structure

ELA.K.7

With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about unknown words in a literary text.

ELA.K.8

With prompting and support, recognize common types of texts (e.g., storybooks or poems).

ELA.K.9

With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling the story in a literary text.

ELA.K.10

With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about unknown words in an informational text.

ELA.K.11

With prompting and support, identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book.

ELA.K.12

With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information in an informational text.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

ELA.K.13

With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the literary story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts).

ELA.K.14

With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar literary stories.

ELA.K.15

With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the informational text in which they appear (e.g., what person, place, thing, or idea in the text an illustration depicts).

ELA.K.16

With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a literary or informational text.

ELA.K.17

With prompting and support, identify basic similarities in and differences between two literary or informational texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).

Range of Reading and Text Complexity

ELA.K.18

Actively engage in group reading activities of literary texts with purpose and understanding.

ELA.K.19

Actively engage in group reading activities of informational texts with purpose and understanding.

Writing

Text Types and Purposes

ELA.K.20

Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which the topic or the name of the text being discussed is included; state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., “My favorite book is...”).

ELA.K.21

Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/ explanatory texts; name and supply some information about the topic.

ELA.K.22

Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.

Production and Distribution of Writing

ELA.K.23

(Begins in grade 3.)

ELA.K.24

With guidance and support from adults and collaborative discussions, add details to strengthen writing as needed

ELA.K.25

With guidance and support from adults, explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including collaboration with peers.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

ELA.K.26

With guidance and support, participate in shared research and writing (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them).

ELA.K.27

With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question

ELA.K.28

(Begins in grade 4.)

Range of Writing

ELA.K.29

(Begins in grade 3.)

Speaking & Listening

ELA.K.30

Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

  • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others and taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion).
  • Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges.
ELA.K.31

Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood.

ELA.K.32

Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood.

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

ELA.K.33

Describe familiar people, places, things, and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional details.

ELA.K.34

Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional details.

ELA.K.35

Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.

Language

Conventions of Standard English

ELA.K.36

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs.
  • Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog and dogs; wish and wishes).
  • Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, and how).
  • Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, and with).
  • Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.
ELA.K.37

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I.
  • Recognize and name end punctuation.
  • Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).
  • Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships

Knowledge of Language

ELA.K.38

(Begins in grade 2.)

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

ELA.K.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content.

  • Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck).
  • Introduce the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, pre-, -ful, and -less) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word.
ELA.K.40

With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings.

  • Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes or foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
  • Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms).
  • Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy).
  • Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut, and prance) by acting out the meanings.
ELA.K.41

Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading, being read to, and responding to texts.