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English Language Arts - Grade 9

All West Virginia teachers are responsible for classroom instruction that integrates content standards, learning skills, and technology tools. Students in ninth grade will continue enhancing skills in a developmentally-appropriate progression of standards. In grades 9-10, students should be exposed to texts that fall in the 1050-1185 Lexile range in order to meet college- and career-readiness expectations. By the end of the programmatic level (grade 12) and over the course of the entire instructional day, the distribution of text types should shift to 30% literary and 70% informational, and writing types should shift to 40% argumentative, 40% informative, and 20% narrative.

Reading

Key Ideas and Details

ELA.9.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the literary text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the literary text.

ELA.9.2

Determine a theme or central idea of a literary text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the literary text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the literary text.

ELA.9.3

Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a literary text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.

ELA.9.4

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the informational text.

ELA.9.5

Determine a central idea of an informational text and analyze its development over the course of the informational text, including how it is developed and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the informational text.

ELA.9.6

Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events in an informational text, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.

Craft and Structure

ELA.9.7

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the literary text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place or how it sets a formal or informal tone).

ELA.9.8

Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a literary text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing or flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.

ELA.9.9

Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.

ELA.9.10

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in an informational text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).

ELA.9.11

Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of an informational text (e.g., a section or chapter).

ELA.9.12

Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in an informational text and analyze how the author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

ELA.9.13

Analyze the representation, in a literary text, of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden’s “Musée des Beaux Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus).

ELA.9.14

Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific literary work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible, or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare).

ELA.9.15

Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums of informational texts (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.

ELA.9.16

Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in an informational text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

ELA.9.17

Analyze influential U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington’s Farewell Address or The Gettysburg Address), including how they address related themes and concepts.

Range of Reading and Text Complexity

ELA.9.18

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grade 9-10 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

ELA.9.19

By the end of the year, read and comprehend nonfiction and other informational texts in the grades 9-10 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Writing

Text Types and Purposes

ELA.9.20

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

  • Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
  • Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
ELA.9.21

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

  • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures and/or tables), and multimedia when useful to aid comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
  • Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
ELA.9.22

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

  • Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
  • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences events and/or characters.
  • Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.
  • Use precise words and phrases, effective details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
  • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

Production and Distribution of Writing

ELA.9.23

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Text Types and Purposes.)

ELA.9.24

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of all Language standards up to and including grade 9.)

ELA.9.25

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

ELA.9.26

Conduct short, as well as more sustained, research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

ELA.9.27

Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation (e.g., MLA or APA).

ELA.9.28

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

  • Apply grade 9 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible, or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”).
  • Apply grade 9 Reading standards to nonfiction and other informational texts (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”).

Range of Writing

ELA.9.29

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Speaking & Listening

Comprehension and Collaboration

ELA.9.30

Initiate and effectively participate in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 9 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly and persuasively.

  • Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
  • Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, or presentation of alternate views); set clear goals, deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
  • Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
  • Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; summarize points of agreement and disagreement and, when warranted, qualify or justify views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.
ELA.9.31

Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, and/or orally), evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.

ELA.9.32

Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

ELA.9.33

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

ELA.9.34

Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

ELA.9.35

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 9 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Language

Conventions of Standard English

ELA.9.36

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Use parallel structure.
  • Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, participial, prepositional, and absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent, noun, relative, and adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations
ELA.9.37

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.
  • Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
  • Spell correctly.

Knowledge of Language

ELA.9.38

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

  • Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook or APA Handbook) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

ELA.9.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 9 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph or text or a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical, advocate, or advocacy).
  • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.
  • Verify the initial determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
ELA.9.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism or oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
  • Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
ELA.9.41

Acquire and accurately use general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college- and career-readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Teaching Resources