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English Language Arts - Grade 6

All West Virginia teachers are responsible for classroom instruction that integrates content standards, learning skills, and technology tools. Students in sixth grade will continue enhancing skills through a developmentally-appropriate progression of standards. In grades 6-8, students should be exposed to texts that fall in the 926-1185 Lexile range in order to meet college- and career-readiness expectations. By the end of the programmatic level (grade 8) and over the course of the entire instructional day, the distribution of text types should shift to 45% literary and 55% informational, and writing types should shift to 35% argumentative, 35% informative, and 30% narrative.

Reading

Key Ideas and Details

ELA.6.1

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the literary text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

ELA.6.2

Determine a theme or central idea of a literary text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

ELA.6.3

Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of events and how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.

ELA.6.4

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

ELA.6.5

Determine a central idea of an informational text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

ELA.6.6

Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and developed in an informational text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).

Craft and Structure

ELA.6.7

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a literary text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

ELA.6.8

Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a literary text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.

ELA.6.9

Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a literary text.

ELA.6.10

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in an informational text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings

ELA.6.11

Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of an informational text and contributes to the development of the ideas.

ELA.6.12

Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in an informational text and explain how it is communicated in the text.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

ELA.6.13

Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the literary text, including contrasting what is “seen” and “heard” when reading the text to what is perceived when listening or watching.

ELA.6.14

Compare and contrast literary texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories, poems, historical novels, and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics.

ELA.6.15

Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually and/or quantitatively) and in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.

ELA.6.16

Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in an informational text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

ELA.6.17

Compare and contrast two authors’ presentations of events (e.g., a memoir written by and a biography on the same person) in informational text.

Range of Reading and Text Complexity

ELA.6.18

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 6–8 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

ELA.6.19

By the end of the year, read and comprehend nonfiction and other informational texts in the grades 6–8 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Text Types and Purposes

ELA.6.20

Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

  • Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly.
  • Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
  • Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.
ELA.6.21

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

  • Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts or tables), and multimedia when useful to aid comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
  • Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented
ELA.6.22

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

  • Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
  • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  • Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
  • Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events.
  • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

Production and Distribution of Writing

ELA.6.23

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Text Types and Purposes.)

ELA.6.24

With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards up to and including grade 6.)

ELA.6.25

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type efficiently and accurately.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

ELA.6.26

Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.

ELA.6.27

Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.

ELA.6.28

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

  • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e.g., stories, poems, historical novels, and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics”).
  • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to nonfiction and other informational texts (e.g., “trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not”).

Range of Writing

ELA.6.29

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Speaking & Listening

Comprehension and Collaboration

ELA.6.30

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly.

  • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
  • Follow rules for shared discussions, set specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
  • Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion.
  • Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through reflection and paraphrasing.
ELA.6.31

Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, and/or orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study.

ELA.6.32

Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

ELA.6.33

Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details, to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.

ELA.6.34

Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, and/or sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information.

ELA.6.35

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 6 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Language

Conventions of Standard English

ELA.6.36

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, or possessive).
  • Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself or ourselves).
  • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.
  • Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).
  • Recognize variations from Standard English in one's own and others' writing and speaking; identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.
ELA.6.37

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, or dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.
  • Spell correctly.

Knowledge of Language

ELA.6.38

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

  • Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
  • Maintain consistency in style and tone.

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

ELA.6.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, and audible).
  • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
  • Verify the initial determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
ELA.6.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context.
  • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, or item/category) to better understand each of the words.
  • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, frugal, and thrifty).
ELA.6.41

Acquire and accurately use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Teaching Resources