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English Language Arts - Grade 4

All West Virginia teachers are responsible for classroom instruction that integrates content standards, learning skills, and technology tools. Students in fourth grade will continue enhancing skills in a developmentally-appropriate progression of standards. In fourth grade, students should be exposed to texts that fall in the 740-1010 Lexile range in order to meet college- and career-readiness expectations. By the end of the programmatic level (grade 5) and over the course of the entire instructional day, the distribution of text types should include 50% literary and 50% informational, and writing types should be 30% argumentative, 35% informative, and 35% narrative.

Early Learning Foundations

Fluency

ELA.4.I

Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

  • Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
  • Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression.
  • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Phonics and Word Recognition

ELA.4.II

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

  • Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

Handwriting

ELA.4.III

Write fluidly and legibly in cursive or joined italics.

Reading

Key Ideas and Details

ELA.4.1

Refer to details and examples in a literary text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

ELA.4.2

Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the literary text; summarize the text.

ELA.4.3

Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the literary text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).

ELA.4.4

Refer to details and examples in an informational text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

ELA.4.5

Determine the main idea of an informational text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.

ELA.4.6

Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the informational text.

Craft and Structure

ELA.4.7

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a literary text, including words that allude to significant characters such as those found in mythology (e.g., herculean).

ELA.4.8

Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose; refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, and meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, and stage directions) when writing or speaking about a literary text.

ELA.4.9

Compare and contrast the point of view from which different literary texts are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.

ELA.4.10

Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in an informational text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.

ELA.4.11

Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, or problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in all or part of an informational text.

ELA.4.12

Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in the focus and information provided in these informational texts.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

ELA.4.13

Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the literary text, identifying where specific descriptions and directions in the text are reflected in the visual or oral presentation.

ELA.4.14

Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, traditional literature, and literary text from different cultures.

ELA.4.15

Interpret information presented visually orally or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the informational text in which it appears.

ELA.4.16

Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in an informational text.

ELA.4.17

Integrate information from two informational texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Range of Reading and Text Complexity

ELA.4.18

By the end of the year read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 4–5 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

ELA.4.19

By the end of the year read and comprehend informational texts, including social studies, science and technical texts, in the grades 4–5 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Writing

Text Types and Purposes

ELA.4.20

Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

  • Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
  • Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.
  • Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, or in addition).
  • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
ELA.4.21

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

  • Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
  • Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, or because).
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
ELA.4.22

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

  • Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
  • Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
  • Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events.
  • Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
  • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

Production and Distribution of Writing

ELA.4.23

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Text Types and Purposes.)

ELA.4.24

With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards up to and including grade 4.)

ELA.4.25

With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

ELA.4.26

Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

ELA.4.27

Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information and provide a list of sources.

ELA.4.28

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

  • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “describe in depth a character, setting or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions].”).
  • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.”).

Range of Writing

ELA.4.29

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Speaking & Listening

Comprehension and Collaboration

ELA.4.30

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly.

  • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
  • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
  • Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.
  • Review the key ideas expressed and explain ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
ELA.4.31

Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

ELA.4.32

Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points.

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

ELA.4.33

Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

ELA.4.34

Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.

ELA.4.35

Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 4 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Language

Conventions of Standard English

ELA.4.36

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, or that) and relative adverbs (where, when, or why,).
  • Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
  • Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, or must) to convey various conditions.
  • Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
  • Form and use prepositional phrases.
  • Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
  • Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, and two; there and their).
ELA.4.37

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • Use correct capitalization.
  • Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
  • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
  • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Knowledge of Language

ELA.4.38

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

  • Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.
  • Choose punctuation for effect.
  • Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

ELA.4.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, and autograph).
  • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
ELA.4.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context.
  • Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
  • Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).
ELA.4.41

Acquire and accurately use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, and stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).