English Language Arts - Grade 2

All West Virginia teachers are responsible for classroom instruction that integrates content standards, learning skills, and technology tools. Students in second grade will continue enhancing skills in a developmentally-appropriate progression of standards. In second grade, students should be exposed to texts that fall in the 420-820 Lexile range in order to meet college- and career-readiness expectations. By the end of the programmatic level (grade 3) and over the course of the entire instructional day, the distribution of text types should include 50% literary and 50% informational, and writing types should be 30% argumentative, 35% informative, and 35% narrative.

Early Learning Foundations



Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

  • Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
  • Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
  • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Phonics and Word Recognition


Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

  • Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words.
  • Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams.
  • Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels.
  • Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes.
  • Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences.
  • Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.



Create readable documents with legible print or cursive as developmentally appropriate.


Key Ideas and Details


Ask and answer key ideas such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in literary text


Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures and determine their central message, lesson, or moral in literary text.


Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges in literary text.


Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in informational text.


Identify the main topic of a multi-paragraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within informational text.


Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in an informational text.

Craft and Structure


Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, and repeated lines) in literary text supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.


Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action in literary text.


Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud from literary text.


Determine the meaning of words and phrases in informational text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.


Know and use various informational text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, and icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.


Identify the main purpose of informational text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas


Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital literary text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.


Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures in a literary text.


Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify an informational text.


Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in an informational text.


Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two informational texts on the same topic.

Range of Reading and Text Complexity


By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the grades 2–3 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.


By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 2–3 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.


Text Types and Purposes


Write opinion pieces by introducing the topic or text being discussed, stating an opinion, supplying reasons that support the opinion, using linking words (e.g., because, and, or also) to connect opinion and reasons, and providing a concluding statement or section.


Write informative/explanatory texts by introducing a topic, using facts and definitions to develop points, and providing a concluding statement or section.


Write narratives to recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, including details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, and using transitional words to signal event order and provide a sense of closure.

Production and Distribution of Writing


(Begins in grade 3.)


With guidance and support from adults and collaborative discussions, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing


With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including collaboration with peers.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge


Participate in shared research and writing (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations).


Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.


Begins in grade 4.)

Range of Writing


Begins in grade 3.)

Speaking & Listening

Comprehension and Collaboration


Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

  • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, and speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
  • Build on others’ talk in conversations by linking comments to the remarks of others.
  • Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion.

Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.


Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas


Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details; speaking audibly and coherently.


Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.


Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification.


Conventions of Standard English


Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
  • Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, and fish).
  • Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself or ourselves).
  • Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, or told).
  • Use adjectives and adverbs and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
  • Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., the boy watched the movies; the little boy watched the movie; the action movie was watched by the little boy).

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.
  • Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.
  • Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
  • Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage / badge; boy / boil).
  • Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Knowledge of Language


Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

  • Compare formal and informal uses of English.

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use


Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.

  • Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, and tell/retell).
  • Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition and additional).
  • Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, and bookmark).
  • Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases.

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe foods that are spicy or juicy).
  • Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, and hurl) and closely related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender, skinny, and scrawny

Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading, being read to, and responding to texts; use adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., when other kids are happy, that makes me happy).