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English Language Arts - Grade 12

All West Virginia teachers are responsible for classroom instruction that integrates content standards, learning skills, and technology tools. Students in twelfth grade will continue enhancing skills in a developmentally-appropriate progression of standards. In grades 11-12, students should be exposed to texts that fall in the 1185-1385 Lexile range in order to meet college- and career-readiness expectations. By the end of the programmatic level (grade 12) and over the course of the entire instructional day, the distribution of text types should shift to 30% literary and 70% informational, and writing types should shift to 40% argumentative, 40% informative, and 20% narrative.

Reading

Key Ideas and Details

ELA.12.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the literary text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text and a variety of other sources, including determining where and why the literary text leaves matters uncertain.

ELA.12.2

Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a literary text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective and critical analysis of the literary text.

ELA.12.3

Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, and/or how the characters are introduced and developed).

ELA.12.4

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where and why the informational text leaves matters uncertain.

ELA.12.5

Determine two or more central ideas of an informational text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex and critical analysis; provide an objective summary of the informational text.

ELA.12.6

Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the informational text and media

Craft and Structure

ELA.12.7

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a variety of literary texts, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)

ELA.12.8

Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a literary text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, or the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.

ELA.12.9

Analyze and defend a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a literary text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).

ELA.12.10

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in an informational text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how and why an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of an informational text (e.g., how Madison defines “faction” in Federalist No. 10).

ELA.12.11

In informational text, analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including how the author uses structure to make points clear, convincing, and engaging.

ELA.12.12

Determine an author’s point of view, purpose, and tone in an informational text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

ELA.12.13

Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), critically evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.)

ELA.12.14

Demonstrate a deep knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth-, and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how multiple literary texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics.

ELA.12.15

Integrate, evaluate, and synthesize multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually and/or quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.

ELA.12.16

Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in influential U.S. informational texts, including the application of constitutional principles (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist Papers or presidential addresses).

ELA.12.17

Analyze seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century foundational U.S. informational documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., The Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights and Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address) for their themes, purposes, rhetorical features, and current relevancy.

Range of Reading and Text Complexity

ELA.12.18

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, independently and proficiently at the high end of the grades 11–12 text complexity range.

ELA.12.19

By the end of the year, read and comprehend nonfiction and other informational texts independently and proficiently at the high end of the grades 11-12 text complexity range.

Writing

Text Types and Purposes

ELA.12.20

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

  • Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s); establish the significance of the claim(s); distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • Develop and justify claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
  • Analyze words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
ELA.12.21

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

  • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures and/or tables), and multimedia when useful to aid comprehension.
  • Evaluate the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
  • Use and evaluate appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
  • Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
ELA.12.22

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

  • Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing multiple point(s) of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
  • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  • Use and evaluate a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
  • Use precise words and phrases, effective details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences events, setting, and/or characters.
  • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

Production and Distribution of Writing

ELA.12.23

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Text Types and Purposes.)

ELA.12.24

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of all Language standards up to and including grade 12.)

ELA.12.25

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

ELA.12.26

Conduct sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

ELA.12.27

Gather and synthesize relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation (e.g., MLA or APA).

ELA.12.28

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

  • Apply grade 12 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth-, and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics”).
  • Apply grade 12 Reading standards to nonfiction and other informational texts (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in influential U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles [e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g., The Federalist Papers or presidential addresses]”).

Range of Writing

ELA.12.29

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Speaking & Listening

Comprehension and Collaboration

ELA.12.30

Initiate and effectively participate in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly and persuasively.

  • Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
  • Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision-making; set clear goals and deadlines; establish norms and experience various individual roles.
  • Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives.
  • Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize and evaluate comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.
ELA.12.31

Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, and/or orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and analyzing any discrepancies among the data.

ELA.12.32

Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and uses of evidence and rhetoric, in order to assess the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used among multiple speakers.

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

ELA.12.33

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning; address alternative or opposing perspectives and determine if the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience and a range of formal and informal tasks.

ELA.12.34

Make strategic and engaging use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

ELA.12.35

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 12 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Language

Conventions of Standard English

ELA.12.36

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested.
  • Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage or Garner’s Modern American Usage) as needed.
ELA.12.37

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • Observe hyphenation conventions.
  • Spell correctly.

Knowledge of Language

ELA.12.38

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

  • Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte’s Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

ELA.12.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, or conceivable).
  • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.
  • Verify the initial determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
ELA.12.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole and paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text.
  • Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
ELA.12.41

Acquire and accurately use general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college- and career-readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Teaching Resources